Carl Schurz (1829-1906): “Carl Schurz was a soldier, politician, and writer best remembered for his passionate support for liberal democracy. He helped elect President Lincoln, fought in the Civil War, served as a U.S. Senator, and denounced the Republican Party’s shift toward conservatism in the late 19th century.” (1)
Schurz, who was born in Germany, writes of meeting Karl Marx in his youth, “I was all the more eager to gather words of wisdom from the lips of that famous man. This expectation was disappointed in a peculiar way. Marx’s utterances were indeed full of meaning, logical and clear, but I have never seen a man whose bearing was so provoking and intolerable.”(2) However, not dissuaded, Schurz would go on to play an active, but unsuccessful role in attempting to replace German aristocracy with Socialism in 1848. And like so many of his German compatriots who had played an important role in the failed revolution, many would soon migrate to the United States in order to continue waving the banner for their liberal cause.
For instance, Schurz was an early supporter of Abraham Lincoln, served as a chairman of the Wisconsin delegation to the Republican National Convention, and was appointed as an ambassador to Spain in order to dissuade Spain from aiding the Confederacy. In 1862, Schurz was commissioned as a brigadier General in the Federal Army, and fought at Gettysburg and the Second Battle of Manassas. Later, he would work in St. Louis editing a German Language newspaper, and was elected U.S. Senator from Missouri in 1868. (1)
In 1870, Carl Schurz would lead a Liberal Republican party, which started in Missouri, and which would spread nationwide with support from Horace Greeley (who himself was fascinated with Utopianism, Socialism, and featured Karl Marx as a correspondent in the New York Tribune), Charles Sumner, Lyman Trumbull, and others. Eventually, Schurz would eventually lead the Indian Affairs Office, and advocate the resettling of Native American tribes on reservations. However, he later changed his mind and promoted an assimilationist policy. (3) (4)
Carl Schurz’s wife, Margarethe Meyer Schurz, was also quite active in promoting socialism in the United States. As a native of Hamburg Germany, she learned about the concept of “Kindergarten” from Friedrich Froebel (See Friedrich below). Upon coming to America, Ms. Schurz started a small Kindergarten in Watertown Wisconsin, and then Milwaukee. “The Kindergarten continued sporadically here, always operated as a private school, through the nineteenth century, finally becoming a part of the public school curriculum after the turn of the last century.” (5)
Friedrich Froebel – the individual who Ms. Schurz learned the concept of Kindergarten from, was accused of undermining traditional values in 1851 by Karl von Raumer, the Prussian minister of education. Raumer believes that Froebel was spreading atheism and socialism – which Froebel denied. Still, von Raumer banned kindergartens in Prussia. In 1852, in the midst of the controversy, Froebel died. Although kindergartens existed in the other German states, they were not reestablished in Prussia until 1860. By the end of the nineteenth century, kindergartens had been established throughout Europe and North America.(6)
- Wisconsin Historical Society
- The Reminiscences of Carl Schurz/Volume One/06 Darkening Prospects — Resisting the Reaction
- Hoxie, Frederick E. A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1981.
- “Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, November 1, 1880,” In Prucha, Francis Paul, ed., Documents of United States Indian Policy, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.
- Watertown History
- Friedrich Froebel at State University.com
Special thanks to Gary Ayres and the newsletter of the Col. John T. Coffee Camp for providing inspiration for this look into the impact of the Schurz’s in our community.